Trauma suffered in childhood echoes across generations, study finds
Trauma in childhood echoes through generations, according to new research that could have implications for thousands of migrant children recently separated from parents at the U.S. border. The study, conducted by researchers at the University of California at Los Angeles and published today in Pediatrics, finds that traumatic events in childhood increase the risk of mental health and behavioral problems not just for that person but also for their children.
“Early-life experiences — stressful or traumatic ones in particular — have intergenerational consequences for child behavior and mental health,” the lead author, Adam Schickedanz, clinical instructor in pediatrics at the David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, told ABC News. “This demonstrates one way in which all of us carry our histories with us, which our study shows has implications for our parenting and our children’s health.”
Asked by ABC News how the research may relate to the more than 2,000 children recently separated from their families after crossing the U.S. border, Schickedanz said all families who participated in the study were from the U.S. but that evidence suggests the effects of adverse childhood events “take a toll in large part as a result of toxic stress responses that appear to be universal, since they have been demonstrated across families from diverse backgrounds.”
The researchers looked at the effects over a generation when a child grows up in an unstable environment, suffers neglect or has absent parents. “Based on the available evidence, one would expect that the stresses and trauma children are experiencing due to family separation at the border will have intergenerational behavioral health consequences,” Schickedanz said.
The study used a national sample of families from previous research — parents who had participated in a 2014 Child Development Supplement and 2,529 of their children who had complete data in the 2014 Childhood Retrospective Circumstances Study.
The severity of a child’s behavioral issues was measured through a scale called the behavior problems index. Researchers gave the primary caregivers of children ages 3 to 17 years old a series of questions to assess present problems, including with anxiety, depression, dependency, hyperactivity, and aggression.
The study found a link between children with a high rate of behavioral problems and parents who had experienced a greater number of adverse childhood events, ACEs.
Parents who growing up suffered four or more adverse events before they were 18 — including neglect, abuse and household dysfunction — were more likely to have children with behavioral issues, such as being hyperactive or having problems regulating their emotions, the research found.
Among the group studied, one-fifth of the parents had four or more traumatic experiences as children.
The researchers also found that a parent’s gender was a factor in the outcome of the child. Children’s outcomes were more negatively affected when it was their mothers, rather than fathers, who suffered trauma as children. Researchers explained this by noting that mothers are more often the primary caregivers.
This is the first study showing a correlation between adverse events in childhood and outcomes for the children of those who suffered the original trauma, and the researchers don’t want to stop there.
“Right now, we are exploring whether these intergenerational [adverse event] associations persist across more than one generation. In fact our study team’s next step is to examine whether grandparents’ [adverse childhood events] can be linked to their grandchildren’s behavioral health.”
While this study focused on the behavioral consequences of traumatic childhood experiences, other research has shown that adverse childhood events affect physical health, increasing the risk of chronic disease and premature mortality later in life.
Denise Powell, M.D. candidate, is a student from Jackson, Mississippi, working in the ABC News Medical Unit.
Trauma suffered in childhood echoes across generations, study finds
Rescue effort restarts for final 8 boys and coach still trapped in Thailand cave
Dive teams in Thailand rescued four more boys from a flooded jungle cave Monday and were confident they will also be able to save the remaining four boys and their adult soccer coach still trapped in the cavern. Interested in Thailand Cave Rescue? Add Thailand Cave Rescue as an interest to stay up to date on the latest Thailand Cave Rescue news, video, and analysis from ABC News. Thailand Cave Rescue Add Interest Chiang Rai provincial Gov. Narongsak Osatanakorn, speaking as the second day of the rescue mission got underway, predicted that all 12 of the boys on the soccer team and the coach will be safely brought out of the labyrinth where they went missing 17 days ago.
“I insist that all 13 will be safe and sound,” Osatanakorn said.
Lillian Suwanrumpha/AFP/Getty Images
Rescue workers bring a stretcher close to a police helicopter at a military airport in Chiang Rai on July 9, 2018, as rescue operations continue for those still trapped inside the cave in Khun Nam Nang Non Forest Park in the Mae Sai district.
Rescuers are hustling to bring the Wild Boar soccer team members out of the Tham Luang Nang Non cave before heavy monsoon rains forecast for the area strike, which could flood the cave again.
“We thank the God of the rain. Asked for there not to be rain,” Osatanakorn said at a news conference Monday.
After the first four boys were brought out of the cave to safety Sunday, rescuers had planned to take a 10- to 20-hour pause to replenish the cave holding the remaining boys with oxygen and give the team of 18 divers who have been leading the boys on a perilous journey to safety a chance to rest.
However, the rescue effort resumed a few hours earlier than planned on Monday, and about six hours after it started, divers emerged with the fifth rescued boy in tow about 5 p.m. local time.
Over the next three hours, they brought out three other boys, a source close to the operation told ABC News.
The Thai Navy SEALs confirmed on their Facebook page on Monday that eight members of the Wild Boar soccer team had been rescued.
“Hooyah,” the SEALs Facebook post reads.
Osatanakorn said Monday’s mission lasted nine hours, about two hours less than the rescue operation Sunday.
He described the four boys rescued Monday as “safe and sound” after they made a treacherous trek out of the bowels of the cave in “buddy teams” escorted by elite divers through narrow crevices and floodwaters that required the use of scuba gear.
After the retrieval of the boys Monday, Osatanakorn said the rescue mission in on pause again for about 20 hours to replenish the cave with oxygen pumped in from the outside and to allow divers to rest.
A military helicopter carrying rescued schoolboys approaches to land at a military airport in Chiang Rai, Thailand, July 9, 2018.
He said the third and possibly final leg of the rescue mission for the remaining four boys and their coach will commence on Tuesday.
Most of the divers who saved the boys Monday are part of the same crew that fetched the first four boys from the cave Sunday.
The four children brought out of the cave Monday, who were not named, were put in ambulances, driven to waiting helicopters, whisked off to an old airport in Chiang Rai, and then transported again by ambulance to a hospital where their four teammates rescued on Sunday are being treated.
Officials on Sunday said the four boys rescued that day were “hungry, but happy,” and eager to eat khao pad ka pow (fried rice with basil).
As of Monday, the eight rescued boys have been quarantined at the hospital in case of an infection. Officials said they were considering allowing the parents to see the boys through a glass partition.
The mission to save the boys has captured the attention of the world and drawn international search-and-rescue crews from the U.S. military, China, the United Kingdom, Australia, and Japan.
(MORE: 4 boys safely pulled from Thailand cave as second leg of rescue mission to begin in hours)
(MORE: Video shows moment 12 boys and their soccer coach were found alive in cave)
(MORE: Former Thai Navy SEAL died wanting to ‘bring the boys back home’)
The 12 boys and their 25-year-old coach became trapped in the underground maze on June 23 after they entered and their exit was cut off by flash flooding.
Thai soldiers try to connect water pipes that will help bypass water from entering a cave where 12 boys and their soccer coach have been trapped since June 23, in Mae Sai, Chiang Rai province, in northern Thailand, July 7, 2018.
The recovery mission was begun in earnest on Sunday due to favorable weather conditions. Approaching monsoons that have been forecast to inundate the area for days have held off, allowing rescuers to pump floodwaters from the cave to make the journey out quicker.
The first rescued boy was brought out of the cave at 5:40 p.m. local time on Sunday, followed 10 to 20 minutes later by the second boy, Osatanakorn said. About two hours later, the third and fourth boys were pulled from the cave 10 minutes apart, he said.
“Today was very successful, more than expected,” Osatanakorn said Sunday.
Officials said Monday that despite rain Monday morning, the weather was holding out.
The Associated Press
Two helicopters wait near the cave for more evacuations of the boys and their soccer coach who have been trapped since June 23, in Mae Sai, Chiang Rai province, northern Thailand Monday, July 9, 2018. Thailand’s interior minister says the same divers
“A lot of people were afraid if it were to rain a lot,” Osatanakorn said. “The weather is good now, but cloudy.”
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Divers begin final push to rescue remaining boys, coach in Thailand cave
The final four boys and their soccer coach were successfully removed from a flooded cave in Thailand on Tuesday, capping a herculean international rescue effort that appeared bleak just days ago. Interested in Thailand Cave Rescue? Add Thailand Cave Rescue as an interest to stay up to date on the latest Thailand Cave Rescue news, video, and analysis from ABC News. Thailand Cave Rescue Add Interest The dramatic days-long rescue mission was accomplished around 6:30 p.m. local time Tuesday, less than nine hours after the last leg of the operation to save the wayward “Wild Boar” youth soccer team commenced, according to the Thai Navy SEALs.
The announcement that the world had been waiting and praying for appeared on the Thai Navy SEALs Facebook page: “12 wild boars are out of the cave and their coach. Everyone is safe.”
Onlookers wave as an ambulance carrying rescued schoolboys leaves a military airport in Chiang Rai, Thailand, July 10, 2018.
The SEALs later posted another message, writing, “We are not sure if this is a miracle, a science or what. All the thirteen Wild Boars are now out of the cave.”
The jubilant news came more than two weeks after the 25-year-old coach and his team went missing in the dark and dank Tham Luang Nang Non cave in northern Thailand. The boys ranged in age from 11-16.
The massive search-and-rescue operation started in earnest on Sunday, when the first four boys were extracted from the subterranean maze. In just three days, international dive teams managed to get all 13 out of the cave as they raced against astronomical odds and a pending monsoon rainstorm that threatened to swamp the cave again.
After replenishing oxygen in the cave and giving divers time to rest, the final push began at 10 a.m. local time Tuesday. As with the previous rescue efforts, 19 divers entered the cave, with two divers escorting each of the boys out of the labyrinth with tethers.
“If everything goes to plan, all will come out today,” an official said at a Tuesday midday press conference.
Just hours later, that statement proved true when the divers emerged from the cave with the first boy about 4 p.m. local time. About two hours later, all of the others were rescued.
Lauren DeCicca/Getty Images
Ambulances transport boys rescued from the cave to Chiangrai Prachanukroh Hospital on July 10, 2018 in Chiang Rai, Thailand.
(MORE: 8 boys have been rescued from cave in Thailand after 2nd day)
(Parents of boys rescued from cave and now at Thai hospital are told, ‘no hugging’ yet)
(MORE: Teammates who didn’t go on ill-fated hike into Thailand cave don’t blame trapped soccer squad’s coach)
Former Chiang Rai Province Gov. Narongsak Osatanakorn, incident commander of the rescue operation, said Tuesday the first rescue mission took 11 hours. It took nine hours to take out the next group of boys on Monday and about the same amount of time to complete the operation on Tuesday.
In addition to the coach and four boys, the doctor and three SEALs who have remained in the chamber with the boys emerged from the cave as officials were conducting a news conference on the rescues.
“They are healthy,” Osatanakorn said.
The Associated Press
Rescuers walk toward the entrance to a cave complex where five were still trapped, in Mae Sai, Chiang Rai province, northern Thailand Tuesday, July 10, 2018. The eight boys were rescued from the flooded cave. (AP Photo/Sakchai Lalit)
The miraculous venture was fraught with danger and uncertainty from the start as rescuers and volunteers from around the world flocked to the mouth of the cave to brainstorm on a plan to bring the boys and coach out safely once they were located on July 2. One volunteer, an experienced diver, died in the cave from oxygen depletion as he was restocking supplies along the underwater route.
News that all of the rescues were successfully completed quickly spread to the regions, prompting many locals to gather outside the hospital in Chiang Rai to applaud and cheer as ambulances with flashing emergency lights pulled into the emergency bay with the boys.
First lady Melania Trump expressed her elation over the triumphant culmination of the life-saving mission.
“Wonderful to hear all 12 boys & their coach are out of the cave in #Thailand. What an amazing & heroic global effort! Wishing them all a speedy recovery,” she tweeted.
Officials said the first eight of the boys rescued were healthy, though two of the four brought out Monday did have swollen lungs.
“They are good physically and mentally,” a health official said at a separate press conference from Chiang Rai Prachanukroh Hospital.
Wonderful to hear all 12 boys & their coach are out of the cave in #Thailand . What an amazing & heroic global effort! Wishing them all a speedy recovery.
— Melania Trump (@FLOTUS) July 10, 2018
According to a statement from the hospital, two of the boys already taken out of the cave are suffering from pneumonia.
Early tests indicate all of the boys could be suffering from lung infections, but only two of the first four boys were confirmed. They expected full blood test results in about 24 hours.
The Associated Press
Rescuers stand at a checkpoint near the entrance to a cave complex where five were still trapped, in Mae Sai, Chiang Rai province, northern Thailand Tuesday, July 10, 2018. The eight boys were rescued from the flooded cave. (AP Photo/Sakchai Lalit)
“The second four, we moved them yesterday from the cave, the age is from 12 to 14,” the commission commander of the medical department said Tuesday. “[They] were alert, and able to identify themselves. When they arrived at Chiang Rai hospital there was a primary medical examination conducted on all four of them. All four are healthy.”
The boys’ parents are able to see their kids through a glass window at the hospital. They have been temporarily cordoned off from family members over concerns of infection.
An ambulance believed to be carrying one of the rescued boys from the flooded cave heads to the hospital in Chiang Rai as divers evacuated some of the 12 boys and their coach trapped at Tham Luang cave, northern Thailand, Monday, July 9, 2018.
‘Miracle’ or ‘science’: Divers pull off improbable feat of rescuing Thai soccer team All US
What to know about NATO as Trump heads to Brussels
is set to attend NATO meetings in Brussels on Wednesday and Thursday with leaders of all 29 member nations, amid his harsh and frequent criticism of the alliance. Interested in Donald Trump? Add Donald Trump as an interest to stay up to date on the latest Donald Trump news, video, and analysis from ABC News. Donald Trump Add Interest “I’m going to tell NATO, ‘you got to start paying your bills,’” Trump said at a rally last week in Montana, indicating that he wants the 29 member states to increase their defense spending. “We’re the schmucks paying for the whole thing.”
This tough message does not sit well with many NATO member states, and many have also expressed concern about Trump’s plans to meet with Russian President Vladimir Putin, NATO’s greatest adversary, in Helsinki just days after the NATO meetings.
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and NATO Secretary-General Jens Stoltenberg speak in a press conference in Washington, April 12, 2017.
So what exactly is NATO, and why is the organization so significant? How are these tensions affecting the organization? ABC News breaks down NATO’s history, importance and criticisms.
What is NATO? NATO stands for the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, a security alliance established in 1949 during the early days of the Cold War to counter Soviet aggression in Europe.
Now numbering 29 countries in Europe and North America, the alliance’s goal is to “safeguard the freedom and security of its members through political and military means,” according to its website .
The organization promotes “democratic values” and encourages member nations to work together on issues of defense and security to prevent long-term conflict.
When security disputes occur, NATO advocates peaceful resolutions. There are guidelines for the use of military force, outlined in Article 5 of the Washington Treaty, the founding treaty of NATO.
NATO adheres to a policy of collective defense, meaning an attack on one member is considered “an attack against all.” The policy is outlined in Article 5 and has only been invoked once, after the Twin Towers in New York City were attacked Sept. 11, 2001, and NATO members sent troops to Afghanistan.
After the Taliban fell, a United Nations Security Council resolution established the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF), under NATO’s control, to stabilize the country. There were 1,044 non-U.S. NATO service members killed fighting in Afghanistan.
Geert Vanden Wijngaert/AP Photo
NATO country flags wave outside NATO headquarters in Brussels, July 28, 2015.
How does NATO work? Headquartered in Brussels, Belgium, each member nation is represented by an ambassador that sits on the North Atlantic Council (NAC), the alliance’s political decision-making body. The NAC meets at least once a week and is chaired by Secretary General Stoltenberg, the former prime minister of Norway.
When political decisions require military involvement, NATO’s Military Committee helps plan the military elements needed for an operation. While NATO has few permanent military forces, member nations can voluntarily contribute forces when the need arises.
The Military Committee is made up of the Chiefs of Defense of NATO member countries; the International Military Staff, the Military Committee’s executive body; and the military command structure, composed of Allied Command Operations and Allied Command Transformation.
Where is NATO operating right now? Currently, NATO’s website lists five active operations and missions: Afghanistan, Kosovo, securing the Mediterranean Sea, supporting the African Union, and policing airspace.
Who pays for NATO? NATO recommends that member countries spend 2 percent of their gross domestic product ( GDP ) on defense.
Only six members meet that goal: the United States, Great Britain, Greece, Estonia, Poland, and Romania.
It’s an issue that Secretary General Stoltenberg has embraced, saying in an April 2017 press conference that fair burden-sharing has been his “top priority” since taking office.
“We have now turned a corner,” Stoltenberg said. “In 2016, for the first time in many years, we saw an increase in defense spending across European allies and Canada — a real increase of 3.8 percent or $10 billion more for our defense.”
“We know that we all need to contribute our fair share because we need to keep our nations safe in a more dangerous world,” he added.
What is the history behind its origin? The North Atlantic Treaty was signed April 4, 1949, in the aftermath of World War II and rising geopolitical tension with the Soviet Union.
NATO’s website lists three purposes for its creation: “deterring Soviet expansionism, forbidding the revival of nationalist militarism in Europe through a strong North American presence on the continent, and encouraging European political integration.”
Secretary of State Dean Acheson signs the Atlantic defense treaty for the United States on April 4, 1949.
As the Cold War settled in, NATO stood in opposition to the Soviet bloc, communist nations allied with the Soviet Union.
In 1991, after the Soviet Union dissolved, NATO developed partnerships with former adversaries.
NATO had its first major crisis response operation in 1995, after the Bosnian civil war in Bosnia and Herzegovina.
More recently, NATO responded to the Libyan crisis in 2011 by carrying out airstrikes to protect civilians under attack by the Gaddafi regime.
Who are the critics of NATO? Trump isn’t the first U.S. official to criticize other NATO members for contributing less than the United States.
In 2011, Defense Secretary Robert Gates called the future of NATO “dim” if other nations didn’t increase their participation in allied activities.
“The blunt reality is that there will be dwindling appetite and patience in the U.S. Congress — and in the American body politic writ large — to expend increasingly precious funds on behalf of nations that are apparently unwilling to devote the necessary resources or make the necessary changes to be serious and capable partners in their own defense,” he said.
Gates made the comments prior to Russia’s annexation of Crimea in 2014 and escalating regional tension there.
NATO’s history is fraught with waves of other criticism, often in moments of relative peace. After the fall of the Soviet Union, critics alleged that a European alliance was no longer necessary to counter communist governments. But militant nationalism was still occurring and soon NATO was put to the test with the Balkan Wars. Indeed, changing security threats have consistently pushed NATO to evolve over the past 60 years.
Even Trump acknowledged the importance of the alliance in April 2017, saying, “NATO allies defeated communism and liberated the captive nations of the Cold War. They secured the longest period of unbroken peace that Europe has ever known.”
“This enduring partnership rooted out of so many different things, but our common security is always number one,” Trump said, “and our common devotion to human dignity and freedom.”
ABC News’ Brian McBride contributed to this report.
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Navy SEALs who rescued Thai soccer team from cave barely made it out, officials say
Thai Navy SEALs who were clearing the flooded cave where 12 boys and their soccer coach were rescued, barely made it out after the main pump that had been siphoning water out of the cave failed, Thai military sources who were directly involved in the operation told ABC News. Interested in Thailand Cave Rescue? Add Thailand Cave Rescue as an interest to stay up to date on the latest Thailand Cave Rescue news, video, and analysis from ABC News. Thailand Cave Rescue Add Interest The system, which had pumped hundreds of millions of gallons of rainwater out of the cave over the past 18 days, gave out soon after rescuers extracted the coach and the four Thai Navy Seals who had volunteered to stay with them. Thai SEALs and support teams, who were carrying air tanks from the third to the second chamber of the labyrinthine cave, soon noticed the waters rising. The third chamber filled, then the second and then the first, as crews scrambled to avoid the kind of cave flooding that had trapped the soccer team on June 27, according to Thai military sources.
Divers walk inside Tham Luang cave complex, where 12 schoolboys and their soccer coach are trapped inside a flooded cave, in the northern province of Chiang Rai, Thailand, July 7, 2018.
Dozens of military personnel and civilians began abandoning the cave, leaving behind hundreds of air tanks. Some of the tanks belonged to the SEALs. Others had been donated by the king of Thailand, Thai military sources said.
On Tuesday, the remaining four boys and the coach were successfully rescued from the cave at the base of a mountain known locally as the Sleeping Princess. That day’s rescue took about nine hours, according to Thai Navy SEALs. They emerged from the cave to cheers by the military and support staff, Thai military sources said.
Linh Pham/Getty Images
Onlookers at the junction in front of Chiangrai Prachanukroh Hospital watch and cheer as ambulances transport the last rescued schoolboys and their coach, July 10, 2018, in Chiang Rai, Thailand.
The Tham Luang Nang Non cave, located within the Khun Nam Nang Non Forest Park, is known in Thailand as the country’s longest cave. It’s twisting six mile long passageways reach all the way into the neighboring country of Myanmar.
The Thai military sources said the pumps lasted just long enough to successfully rescue the final four boys and their soccer coach. The five hauled out nearly at once in a long convoy of divers, support teams, and medics, according to the sources. Each of the nine chambers had a doctor waiting, and the boys were evaluated at each chamber.
The boys were given anti-anxiety medication before they were rescued, Thai Prime Minister Prayut Chan-o-cha revealed, according to The Associated Press.
“Like us, we take antihistamines to make us feel well, not excited, not writhe, not taking the mask out,” the prime minister said. “It’s called Anxiolytic — something to make them not excited, not stressed.”
None of the 13 survivors had diving experience and most couldn’t swim, according to Thai military sources.
The rescued were finally carried out on stretchers from the second chamber, wearing surgical masks to ward off germs, and sunglasses because of their new sensitivity to light, the Thai military sources said.
(MORE: ‘Miracle’ or ‘science’: Divers pull off improbable feat of rescuing Thai soccer team)
(MORE: Thai cave where dramatic rescue of 12 boys and coach unfolded may become tourist attraction: Official)
(MORE: The boys trapped in the Thailand cave could face an unusual disease)
The youngest of the group, who was very weak, was the first one to be whisked away in an ambulance Tuesday. His condition was apparently of such concern that medics didn’t even wait for police cruisers to escort them to a nearby helipad, the Thai military sources said.
The coach was the last one out and seemed to have been suffering from hypothermia as he emerged from the cave shivering and wrapped in a thermal blanket, said the Thai military sources.
Royal Thai Navy SEALs
The three Royal Thai Navy SEAL divers and medics who stayed in the cave with the boys and coach since they were located on July 2. Officials said they emerged from the cave “healthy” shortly after the last rescues were made, July 10, 2018.
After their discovery deep in the belly of that cave, divers began to deliver sticky rice and pork in waterproof bags to the four SEALs and the soccer team, according to the sources. The food had been cooked in the camp right outside the mouth of the cave, but the boys could only nibble on the rice because they’d grown so weak, the Thai military sources said.
Royal Thai Navy via AP
Thai rescue teams arrange a water pumping system at the entrance to a flooded cave complex where 12 boys and their soccer coach have been trapped since June 23, in Mae Sai, Chiang Rai province, northern Thailand in this undated photo.
The “Wild Boar” youth soccer team and its 25-year-old coach were exploring the cave on June 23 when heavy rains flooded their exit route.
The search-and-rescue operation began on Sunday just ahead of monsoon rainstorms that pelted the region early Wednesday and threaten to flood the cave again.
A team of 19 divers entered the cave to replenish oxygen supplies, and two divers escorted each of the boys out of the underwater labyrinth, Thai military sources said.
One volunteer died from what the Thai Navy Seals called a “medical condition” as he was restocking supplies along the route.
Soe Zeya Tun/Reuters
Rescue workers take out machines after 12 soccer players and their coach were rescued in Tham Luang cave complex in the northern province of Chiang Rai, Thailand, July 10, 2018.
Navy SEALs who rescued Thai soccer team from cave barely made it out, officials say Aerial China Courts